Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /srv/www/gop/inc/events.php on line 135 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /srv/www/gop/inc/plugin.php on line 194 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /srv/www/gop/inc/events.php on line 135 observations_backup [GOP - General Observation Period]
 

Observations

Rain gauges (GOP-1)

Rain gauge data from the diverse sources will be assembled, quality controlled and combined to precipitation maps for various integration times which take into account the varying temporal resolution of the data. Realtime available observations will be delivered in near-real time to be used for an “online evaluation” of the LM(K) forecasts.

Name Code PI Location No. Stations Temp. Reso. Products Data/Day Avail. Since
Berlin net rai_berl Reimer Berlin area 60 5 min RR

Water authorities rai_wafe Mathes Germany 200 5 min RR

DWD online rai_dwd1 Koziar Germany 60 1 min RR

DWD Klima rai_dwd2 Koziar Germany ca. 3000 1 day RR

DWD Ranie1 rai_dwd3 Koziar Germany gauge analysis 6 h RR ca. 6.2 MB
DWD Ranie2 rai_dwd4 Koziar Germany gauge and radar analysis 6 h RR ca. 6.2 MB
DWD Regnie rai_dwd5 Koziar Germany gauge analysis all stations 1 day RR

:berlin_gauges_small.png

Thorsten Reinhardt 2006/11/21 17:48

Weather radar (GOP-2)

All DWD radar products and original 3-D radar measurements will be made available. A quicklook inventory will allow the PQP participants to pick case studies easily. The PQP project VERIPREG (Paulat et al. 2005) will produce hourly precipitation maps from a combination of radar (composite of precipitation scans) and in situ rain gauge data. The PQP project QUEST will use the 3D radar reflectivities to evaluate the forecasted hydrometeor distributions via forward simulation by a polarimetric radar operator.

Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Year Avail. Since Status 1)
X-Band Radar 
rad_xbhh Peters Hamburg

Z 1000 GB

X-Band Radar 
rad_xbbn Simmer Bonn 5 min
Z,v 200 GB

C-Band Radar 
rad_cbhp Seltmann Hohenpeissenberg 15 min
Z, LDR, ZDR, v, KDP 300 GB
1
C-Band Radar 
rad_cbka Beheng Karlsruhe 15 min
Z, v


DWD Radar Network 
rad_dwdn Mammen Fürholzen 15 min
Z, v, Sig 250 GB

rad_rapi Koziar Central Europe 15 min
dBZ

rad_rary Koziar Germany 5 min
RR

rad_raqy Koziar Germany 5 min


rad_rarw Koziar Germany 1 h
RR ca. 13 GB

—- 1)
1 means: System is up

radar locations Range of DWD:
C-Band weather radar (black)
C-Band radar Karlsruhe of FZK (green)
X-Band radar Bonn (blue)
X-band radar MPI Hamburg (blue)
polarimetric C-band radars of DWD Hohenpeissenberg and DLR (red).















Thorsten Reinhardt 2006/11/28 11:36

Drop size distribution (GOP-3)

Observations of the rain drop size distribution (RDSD) with ground-based disdrometers and vertically pointing Micro Rain Radars (MRR) will be performed. At least 13 will be located at selected sites (see map below) in order to study differences of RDSDs over flat terrain including maritime conditions on one hand and over orographically structured terrain on the other hand. A transect of MRRs will be deployed in the COPS area and coordinated with polarimetric radar (POLDIRAD/DLR) observations during COPS. Examples of actual MRR observations can be viewed here.

Different surface based disdrometers are used as well: 2 Joss Waldvogel Disdrometer (JWD), 3 Optical Disdrometer ODM470, and 4 Parsival Disdrometers. These instruments are based on different physical principle and methods for retrieving DSDs and will thus help to keep the major uncertainty of MRR-based DSDs under control, namely a potential bias due to vertical wind.

Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Year Avail. Since Status 1)
MRR mrr_berl Peters Berlin 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

MRR mrr_berg Simmer Bergheim 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

MRR mrr_bonn Simmer Bonn10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

Parsival par_bonn Simmer Bonn

RDSD 1 GB

MRR mrr_hamb Peters Hamburg 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

MRR mrr_helg Peters Helgoland 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

ODM470_2 odk_helg Bumke Helgoland

RDSD, wind speed 1 GB

MRR mrr_kiel Peters Kiel 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

OODM470_1 odk_kiel Bumke Kiel

RDSD, wind speed 1 GB

MRR mrr_lich Hagen Lichtenau 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

JWD jwd_lich Hagen Lichtenau

RDSD 1 GB

Parsival par_lich Hagen Lichtenau

RDSD 1 GB

MRR mrr_lind Engelbart Lindenberg 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

MRR mrr_zing Peters Zingst 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

MRR mrr_cop1 Handwerker Black Forest 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

JWD jwd_cop1 Seltmann Black Forest

RDSD, wind speed 1 GB

MRR mrr_cop2 Peters Black Forest10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

ODM470_1 odk_cop2 Bumke Black Forest

RDSD, wind speed 1 GB

MRR mrr_cop3 Seltmann Black Forest 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

Parsival par_cop3 Simmer Black Forest

RDSD 1 GB

MRR mrr_cop4 Crewell Black Forest 10 sec 100 m RDSD 10 GB

Parsival par_cop4 Handwerker Black Forest

RDSD, wind speed 1 GB

Susanne Crewell 2006/11/23 17:18

Lidar (GOP-4)

The GOP includes 1) a cooperation with European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and 2) the use of lidar ceilometers which are based on much simpler techniques compared to research lidars but operate continuously. EARLINET will provide range-resolved aerosol profiles on a regular basis, approximately three times a week. The data (from all EARLINET stations across Europe) will be available in a data base open for the COPS community. These data include the height of the planetary boundary layer, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles typically for one or two wavelengths (355 nm / 532 nm). German EARLINET stations include Hamburg, Leipzig, München, and Garmisch. Measurements from lidar ceilometers at more than 100 stations within Germany are available through DWD. Furthermore, data from several institutes (for example Meteorological Institutes in Bonn, Hannover, Kiel, and DLR) will be acquired. It will be investigated whether more stations can archive the backscatter profile in addition to the standard cloud base height.

Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Year Avail. Since Status 1)
Ceilometer CT25K lid_bonn Simmer Bonn 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_ober participants DLR Oberpfaffenhofen 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_hamb participants Hamburg 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_hann participants Hannover 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_juel Crewell Jülich 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_kiel participants Kiel 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Ceilometer CT25K lid_schn participants Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus 15 sec 30 m cloud base, backscatter profile 2 GB

Earlinet lid_germ Wiegner 4 Stations





DWD Ceilometer Netz lid_dwdn Koziar Germany

cloud base


GPS (GOP-5)

Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Day Avail. Since Status 1)
GPS Standard net gps_gfzn Dick Germany 30 min
ZPD, H2O column 6 GB

GPS COPS area for 6 month gps_cops Dick COPS area 30 min
ZPD, H2O column 1 GB

GPS network Switzerland gps_swit Mätzler Switzerland

ZPD, H2O column 1 GB

Lightning networks (GOP-6)

Continuous observations by two networks will be made available to PQP: The SAFIR (Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique) total lightning detection system in Northern Germany of the University of Hannover and the joint lightning location system of DLR and University of Munich LINET operating about 15 stations in Southern Germany. They both separate between cloud to ground (CG) and intra cloud (IC) lightnings. Linet can also give the vertical position of lightning.

Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Day Avail. Since Status 1)
LINET VLF Network lit_bava Betz Bavaria

IC and GC, flash height


SAFIR Lightning Detection System Northern Germany lit_noge Hauf Northern Germany

IC and CG


Satellites (GOP-7)

Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), MODIS and MERIS observations will by available by implementing a near real time (NRT) processing. This will provide an excellent overview of the current weather situation, on a larger scale and for the GOP and COPS area. The information is online (http://wew.met.fu-berlin.de/nrt) with a delay of 2 hours. The SEVIRI instrument on MSG with its 11 spectral channels from 0.6 to 14 μm will be the prime instrument. The calibrated satellite data are processed automatically to provide higher-order, level 2 products, such as water vapor and cloud top pressure. SEVIRI products will be adopted to monitor atmospheric products at meteorological stations within the LMK domain, e.g. Cabauw and Lindenberg, but also at COPS experimental sites, MAP stations and Berlin. In addition to the production of time series, averages of selected regions will be compared to LMK output on a regular, operational basis. Depending on the status of the upcoming satellites CLOUDSAT, CALIPSO, and METOP 1, other satellites might be utilized for validation purposes. Special observations with high resolution about stability indices will be available through EUMETSAT.

Instrument Code Temporal
resolution
Spatial
resolution
Products Accuracy Daily data
volume / MB
SEVIRI / Meteosat-8 msg_arst
msg_cfra
msg_cmas
msg_ctpr
msg_inwv
msg_odep
msg_stst
whole disc every 15min. Δx~3 km nadir
Δx~5 km Europe
near true color image TCI
cloud mask CM
clear sky brightness temperature BT
integrated water vapor IWV
cloud top pressure CTP


ΔTB~3.3 K
ΔIWV ~0.7 g m-2 (day, land, clear sky)
ΔCTP~52 to 121 hPa (high to low-level clouds)
MODIS / TERRA sat_modi overpass Europe ~10:30 am Δx 0.3 - 1 km nadir TCI
CM
cloud optical thickness Δ
liquid water path LWP
effective radius reff
geometric cloud thickness H
IWV



ocean and warm bound. layer clouds


ΔIWV~0.24 g m-2 clear sky land surfaces
MODIS / AQUA overpass Europe ~1:00 pm Δx: 0.3 - 1 km nadir same as MODIS / TERRA
MERIS / Envisat overpass ~10:30 local Δx: 0.25 - 1 km nadir TCI
CM
Δ
CTP
IWV



ΔCTP~183 m (single low-level clouds)
clear sky, ocean, land and above clouds
CPR / CLOUDSAT sat_csat launch: April 28, 2006
AMSU NOAA sat_amsu TB, IWV, LWP, RR


Meteorological stations (GOP-8)

The observations from meteorological stations (DWD, Meteorological and Geographical Institutes, research organizations, etc.) provide continuous information on the atmospheric state. In particular we will use data from  DWD observatories (Hohenpeissenberg, Lindenberg); especially at Lindenberg a wealth of remote sensing (radiation, microwave radiometer, ceilometer, Raman lidar, cloud radar, wind profiler, GPS etc) and in situ instrumentation is available as well as 4 radiosoundings per day. The observations will allow the characterization of the atmospheric state (in particular the boundary layer and clouds) as complete as possible.

  • Further observatories of diverse operators can provide information from interesting locations (UFS Schneefernerhaus; Schwarzwald Observatories Hartheim and Tuttlingen).
  • Observatories of foreign weather services including for example the Cloudnet sites Cabauw, Chilbolton and Palaiseau which provide information on the vertical cloud distribution.
  • Meteorological and also geographical institutes operate a rather complete set of instrumentation; as an example the available instruments at the Meteorological Institute Bonn consists of lidar ceilometer, microwave radiometer MICCY, infrared radiometer, micro rain Radar, X-Band Radar, Scintillometer, rain gauges, weather station. This also includes foreign institutes like the IAP Bern.
Name Code PI Location Temp. Reso. Vert. Reso. Products Data/Day Avail. Since Status 1)
Microwave Radiometer HATPRO sta_schn Crewell Schneefernerhaus 1 min 0.1-1 km LWP, temp. & H2O profiles


Climate station Oberpfaffenhofen sta_opho Hagen Oberpfaffenhofen 5 min
temp., rel. hum., wind, pressure, rain


Climate station Hohenheim sta_hohe Wulfmeyer Hohenheim





Forest station Tuttlingen sta_tutt Mayer Tuttlingen 10 min
tower, radiation, soil moist


Forest station Hartheim sta_hart Mayer Hartheim 10 min
tower, radiation, soil moist


 
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